David Lordkipanidze

Above: The Dmanisi skull, also known as Skull 5 or D4500, is one of five Homo erectus skulls discovered in Dmanisi, Georgia. The skull was discovered in 2005 and is shown here with it's mandible which was discovered 5 years earlier. It is currently the most complete early Homo skull that has been found.


The site of Dmanisi, in the Republic of Georgia (between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea) has the earliest evidence for hominins out of Africa, dating to 1.8 million years ago. Five skulls of early Homo erectus, sometimes called Homo georgicus, were found with simple Oldowan stone tools.


Dmanisi, in the Caucasus
First out of Africa
Early humans, Homo georgicus,
One point eight million years ago
Elephant, sabertooth, panther and bear
Antelope, bison herds, steppe horse and deer


Dmanisi, in the Caucasus
First in Eurasia
Early stone tools, from the Oldowan
Diverse raw materials
Rhinoceros, Etruscan wolf, short-necked giraffe
Mammoth herds, wild goat, hyaena packs


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"Dmanisi" © 2016. Music and Lyrics by Nicholas Toth and Kathy Schick, THE STONE AGE INSTITUTE®. All rights reserved.

Carrie Newcomer

Guitas and Bass:
Nicholas Toth

Tom Schoenemann

David Weber

David Weber

Recorded at Airtime Studios, Bloomington, Indiana© 2016, THE STONE AGE INSTITUTE®.






How’d you get so far?
What brought you here?
So many faces shown to us, places known to us, that you’ve seen


Dmanisi, in the Caucasus
First out of Africa
Giant ostrich, giant cheetah
Steppe-forest habitat
Lava flow, volcanic ash, tunnels and pipes
Tooth-marked bones, cut-marked bones, primeval life